The most widely spread and the most often used aggregates
of construction mortars, including dry mixtures,
are quartz sands which comply with the requirements
of State Standards (GOST) 8736 «Sand for construction
works. Technical conditions» and GOST «Sand for construction
works. Testing methods». Aggregates can amount
up to 80%, and in some cases even more, of a construction
mortar’s scope. A final product quality depends very much
on properties of sand used as an aggregate. Granulometric
composition, grains form, surface condition, and strength
of an aggregate influence construction mixtures’ properties
Depending on purposes, sand of different quality is
used in mixtures. The strictest requirements are specified
for sand’s granulometric composition. (Pic. 1, 2). Sand’s particles
size distribution in the aggregate is thought to be optimal
when the particles maximal compact packing is provided.
Then the strength of the mortar manufactured from
the dry mixture increases without adding more of binding
material. In natural sands particles size distribution is not
optimal; therefore sand is sieved into fractions to be mixed
later in the necessary proportion.
Many manufacturers of construction dry mixtures
(CDM) think it reasonable to use fractioned sand consisting,
the most often, of five narrow fractions, or of strictly proportioned
mixture of these fractions. The following sand
fractions are mostly in demand: 0.63–1.25 mm; 0.315–0.63
mm; 0.16–0.315 mm, as well as mixtures of fractions with
particles size 0.16–0.315 and 0-0.63 mm. Companies which
work with imported equipment frequently use other fractions,
for example: 0.1–0.5 mm; 0.5–1.25 mm; 1.25–2.0 mm;
In Western Europe washed, dried, fractioned sand
is manufactured by the mining industry enterprises
and delivered to plants producing dry mixtures in tank
trucks with pneumatic discharge. Therefore the plants
have no shops for sand preparing. Only in some cases for
especially important mixtures control sand screening is
Domestic manufacturers as a rule do not hold to homogeneity
indexes regarding their products and would not
rather tend to increase its quality, as long as their production
is in rising demand. Due to this, dry mixtures manufacturers
have to additionally enrich raw materials themselves
to avoid technological process troubles.
As far as it is difficult to provide stable indexes
of fractioned sand because of inconstant quality of initial
raw material, some manufacturers of aggregates try to
comply with requirements of dry mixtures plants on the
basis of contracts.
In the production cost of simple dry mixtures the cost
of sand amounts to about 80%. In modified dry mixtures
manufacturing, on the contrary, its share in the production
cost is about 5% only.
From the DCM market review (made by the Company
«Stroitelnaya Informatsia» — «Construction Information
») it follows that plants of the Central Region in
2006 have manufactured no more than 75 thousand tons
of mixtures, of which 6 thousand tons are non-modified
mixtures. The amount of mixtures utilization, according
to the estimates, reached 300 thousand tons. Thus, in
comparison with the year 2005, consumption increased
by 30%. The calculations mentioned do not include the
city of Moscow and Moscow Region. In Moscow 1400
thousand tons of modified only mixtures have been manufactured
According to the estimates made by the Company
«Express Obzor» («Express Review»), the volume of dry
construction mixtures’ market grew (in roubles) by 57% in
2007. Growth rate in cost index exceeded the similar index
in natural units by more than 3 times due to high demand
for dry mixtures. During three years the highest growth is
observed in the putties segment, share of which has grown
from 15.3% in 2004 up to 19.5% in 2007, in natural units. Also
for the last three years the share of plaster (stucco) in the
structure of Russian dry construction mixtures’ market increased,
and it leads to the necessity to intensify manufacture
of fractioned sand with thin rated values, for example:
0–0,1 mm; 0–0,16 mm; 0–0,2 mm.
Manufacturing of other kinds of DCM grows more
slowly and, correspondingly, their share in the market
structure decreases. The most marked tendency of the
DCM market is gain in consumption of mixtures made on
the gypsum base, due to decline in sales of mixtures manufactured
of cement binding materials. The share of foreignmade
dry construction mixtures in Russian market was
10% in 2006. In 2007 the amount of foreign-made products
in the market became even lower.
Due to growth of construction works the amount of
quartz sand used in 2008 will exceed 1500 thousand tons.
Construction industry and other industrial branches
are provided with explored quartz sand reserves for more
than 100 years. However, natural raw materials, as a rule,
do not comply with the requirements of construction mixtures
manufacture’s technologies. Therefore, for further
utilization as an aggregate, quartz sand must be blended
and enriched, preferably right at the field.
The situation at the construction sands market is unsatisfactory.
The main suppliers of conditioned sands for
dry mixtures manufacture are concentrating plants which
produce glass and moulding sands, as well as open pit sand
Sand of 0–0.5 mm (0.63 mm) fraction is manufactured:
• in the Central Part of the Russian Federation:
JSC «Ramensky GOC», near Moscow region; JSC
«Nebolchinskoye karieroupravlenie», Novgorod region;
• in Ural Region: «Gora Chrustalnaya», Ekaterinburg
• in Povolzhsky Region: JSC «Quartz», Ulianovsk region.
Fractioned sands of different fractions are manufactured
by several plants only, including those in the European
part of Russia: JSC «Voronezhskoye rudoupravlenie
», JSC «Muraevnia» (Riazan region), CJSC «Peschany
karier» (Voronezh region), LLC Trade House «Volgograd»,
LLC «Stroitelnye materialy (Tcheboksary), CJSC «Mansurovskoye
karieroupravlenie» (Moscow region), LLC PSP
«Career Oktiabrskoye» (Moscow region).
In the nearest future it is planned to launch GOK
(mining and concentration complex) «Ushinsky» in Riazan
region, where apart from glass sands of ОВС–030–В
mark, with particles size 0,1–0,5 mm, also fractioned
sands with particles sizes 0,5–1 mm, 0,8–1,2 mm, 1,2–2,5
mm will be manufactured (as well as thin-grained fractions
of 0,4–0,5 mm, 0,3–0,4 mm, 0,2–0,3 mm, 0,1–0,2
mm). It is planned also to build mining and concentration
complex at Sukhobezvodnenskoye deposit in Lipetsk
region and Novgorod regions, and at «Osechnoye» deposit
in Tver region. In 2006 there were licenses issued
for sand mining in Ulianovsk region at deposits: Tashlinskoje
— Vostochny Uchastok, Lukyanovskoye and
Yasashnaya Tashla. It is possible shops and factories for
sand enrichment will be planned for these deposits. The
concentration plant for production fractioned sands and
macadam from quartzites is planned in Karelia region at
In Dagestan it is planned to build a mining and concentration
plant for manufacturing glass sands on the Sernoye
For development of raw materials base in the European
part of Russia’s south it is necessary to organize openpit
mining and to construct a concentration plant at one of
quartz sands deposits in Krasnodarsky and Stavropolsky
Districts: such as Staro-Titarovskoye, Spasskoye, Blagodarnenskoye.
In Kabardino-Balkaria it is possible to utilize
quartzites from the Aktoprakskoye deposit for DCM manufacturers
The branch plants situated in Ural, West-Siberian,
East-Siberian and Far-East economical districts have not
own base of quality raw material and have to deliver sand
from other regions. At the present time in Siberia and in
the Far East only CJSC «Antonovsky GOK» manufactures
quartz raw material with particles size of 0,1–0,8 mm.
Among proven territories in the East-Siberian region
it is necessary to mention the large deposit of quartzit-like
sand-stone Cheremshanskoye. Technical and economic assessment
for crushing-milling factory with the capacity
of 200 thousand tons per year had been worked out in the
1970s, but its construction has not started yet.
Due to the well developed territory infrastructure
and labour force presence the Igirminskoye deposit of
quartz sands is one of the most challenging in Siberia. In
Khakassia it can be considered the possibility to build a
concentration plant or shop on the base of quartz sand stone’s deposits «Gora Zhernovaya», «Gora Stekolnaya»,
In the beginning of the 1990s the deposits of quartz
sands have been explored in Tyumen region: Zaozernoye,
Khanty, Purpeyskoye, Prirechnoye, Verkhne-Kamenskoye,
as well as quartz sands in the Bigela valley. The
quartz sands in the Bigela valley are perfectly suitable for
building there a line of fractioned sands manufacture.
In the Krasnoyarsky district the following deposits
are challenging: Sredne-Rassokhinskoye, Ilyushikhinskoye,
In the Republic of Tyva quartz gravelites and quartzites
of the «Ottuk-Dash» deposit can also be considered as a
raw material base for fractioned sands manufacture.
In Primorsky Region sand of Mezhdurechenskoye
and Pavlovskoye deposits, as well as sandstone of Kiparisovskoye
deposit can be advised for use in DCM manufacture.
In Pic. 1 and 2 the comparative characteristics of
granulometric composition of sand from different deposits,
located in the European part of the Russian Federation and
in Siberia, are presented.
Pic. 1 shows that in sands from the deposits Sernoye,
Blagodarnenskoye, Bogdanovskoye, particles exceeding 0.8
mm are not available almost, therefore they are not suitable
for manufacturing fractioned materials in wide range.
Meanwhile sands from the rest of deposits can be used for
manufacturing small-, medium- and large-grain fractions
for DCM producing.
Pic. 2 shows that in the Siberian region only the following
deposits are suitable for manufacturing fractioned
sands in wide range: Sredne-Rassokhinskoye, Igirminskoye,
Thus, to provide the developing dry mixtures manufacture
it is possible to build new concentration and processing
plants for production of fractioned sands in all
regions of the Russian Federation. The raw material base
should be developed before a DCM plant is built or simultaneously
with the process of its construction, as far as it is
known that raw material delivery on the distance of more
than 300 km is not economically profitable.
We would like to note that our Company, LLC Research
and Development Company «Tareksa», fulfils different
works on scientific research, business-plans calculations,
design and engineering, field supervision etc. In Pic. 3
and 4 the line for fractioned sand manufacture (the scheme
and its section) is presented. The project of the line has been
developed by the LLC Research and Development Company
«Tareksa» and it can be used at any of the new plants.
Luis Silva, Chairman of the EMO (European Mortar Industry Organisation) Technical Committee, Director Técnicona Saint-Gobain Weber, Portugal
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